One problem was that lasercutters aren't cheap, especially not for hobbyists who want a large cutting area. I had some stability problems when I used tap water, but once I switched to distilled water it's been 100% stable. This strip prevents the fumes to escape the ventilation room between the profiles and the plates. BobsCNC knows a thing or two about making these types … The very last part is the nozzle, on top of it we put the o-ring and the focusing lens is also 20 mm in diameter, the tube from air pump comes in the side, this whole structure is attached to the base with 2 rubber bands, its bottom is solid, this is done specially so that when you turn on the laser for the first time it burned its way out and formed a minimum hole through which the compressor air would exit. The Endurance DIY is a universal solution both for home, small workshops & medium enterprises for souvenirs engraving, stamps and seals making + laser marking (can be used as a laser engraving and cutting machine). Modified my tray to make it removable and added a rotary attachment to etch glasses and mugs (works great!). I included the .dxf files of all of the plates that have to be cut for the lasercutter in this step. We can work with line art, logos and lettering but not photos. But i have still problems with shutting down the raspberry PI 3. The seperate spaces will be seperated by 3 mm acrylic. Two of these sheets need to be bent to fit the bezel, I contacted a local company for this. The files with the dimensions of the bevel are also included in this step. Building custom machinery with the specific needs of our shop and client base is a passion of ours. Normal lasercutters use the upper left corner, but this doesn't really change anything on the quality of your cuts, so the lower left corner of the working area will be used as home position. The Acrylic blocks unfocused energy from the laser pretty well, but we still always wear eye protection (with spare pairs for onlookers). I used Acrylic for the entire door/hatch so you can really see what's going on. The water will be pumped from the tank to the laser, to copper pipes for cooling the water and then back into the tank. I've chosen a laser head with movable lens, so you can adjust the Z-distance between the lens and the material you want to cut to set the focal point right. There is a lot of magic (and science!) Why build a small machine when you can build a big one?Since this is still a DIY machine, I wanted it to be easy to change or add parts when needed. Orion Motor Tech 40W CO2 Laser Engraver Cutter with 12 x 8in Work Area, Desktop K40 Laser Engraving Machine with Digital Control, Red Dot Pointer, Detachable Wheels, Compact for DIY Home Office 4.2 out of 5 stars 70 It is important to install grounding on the machine, it does not matter which board you choose, it is extremely important, otherwise various artifacts will creep out in the form of missing steps, freezes and other things. 6 weeks ago, Hi.. Love the cutter.. The lasing area is 4' x 8' (approximately 1200mm x 2400mm). Question That happens because the arduino nano on which my controller is assembled is simply not able to process more data, this is its physical limit. Stepper motors are simple nema17 with a 5mm shaft. Let’s stop on the head a bit, I've been thinking for a long time how to do it correctly and stopped on this design, it consists of 5 parts, the top is attached to the bearing and has a through hole for the passage of the laser beam inside, a mirror is installed at an angle of 45 degrees, there is a tube it screwed with 4 screws, another tube is a little bit bigger and it squeezed on the previous one, there are holes for fixing bolts, but in practice the tubes are rubbed tightly against each other and it works without bolts. This way, the fans won't only extract the fumes from the working area but also cool down the coolingwater. You also need to print the hinges and 'voet deksel' to assemble the cover. When the laser is calibrated correctly and everything is tested, the last plates can be mounted on the construction. I'm in the process of building a copy...Got the Raspberry Pi display and relay bank working.. Just one thing.. Could you point me in the right way, how to go from visual studio to the image file.. 2. BobsCNC E3 CNC Router Engraver Kit. need to be kept inside the machine. There are dozens of methods in use around the world, everything from minimal cost low tech home brew solutions to high priced commercial chillers. We did cooling using a radiator instead of the copper tubes, and I used a blower from a kids bouncy house for the exhaust (really works well!). are some commonly bought products involving laser-related uses. 10 months ago, hi hows laser cutter coming on have you seen mine so far. In the pictures of this step, I added some drafts that show you the different views of the frame. Thanks for the plans/inspiration! ... 100W CO2 Laser Engraving Cutting Machine 900x600mm Engraver Cutter USB Disk. Most of the items were bought in China and there is a complete list with links , for example were purchased, guides, nuts, motors, lenses, mirrors, power supplies, a laser, a cooling pump. You can see the lay-out of the electronics in the pictures. There are two power supplies, one 12 V for the fans, pump and motors and one 5 V supply that powers the microcontrollers. Railroad Rail Lantern / Sign Stand Split With Axe. Remember that the laser itself will only work when the pump is activated and the cover is closed. $178.08. It's best to do this before mounting the plates because you have easy access to everything now. The last element of the optical system is the lens, it come in different focal lengths from 38.1mm to 101.6mm, if you imagine how the beam goes, than you can understand the difference of usage, lenses with a short focus are mainly used for engraving, and long focus for cutting because the area of the beam with a high concentration will be larger and the material can be burned deeper. The radiator is on the right side (not in the picture) and the blower is under the table. You won't need a computer then. As already mentioned 90% of the mechanics were printed on a 3D printer, the filling is 100%, I recommend to buy if you don't have 0.8mm nozzle so that printing goes faster. Nice surface! The arduino is just connected to the steppermotor drivers and the driver of the CO2 laser. The plate is just transparant enough for you to see what happens inside. In my case, it took 2 sticks of 840 mm, 2 of 700 mm and one of 800 mm, to connect the profile using special angles and nuts. Right now I just have a 4 pin plug on the Y Axis driver and male connectors on the rotory and normal Y axis so I have to manually switch them. But of course it depends on your goals. The construction consists of five seperate places. The left side is connected to the hot side of the laser through my pump. Normal hobby lasercutters use a honeycomb table or something like that, but such a grid costs way too much for the dimensions of this lasercutter. This is a very good design. If you chose to assemble controller on grbl, like me, then everything is as simple as possible, google Arduino nano grbl and solder everything according to the circuit, there are literally ten wires, connection to the laser power supply looks like this. I've also added a red laser marker (beam combiner) to help align work. (remove "//"). " It is recommended to use distilled water as a coolant, I use an anti-freeze, the option is so-so, many people criticize it, but in the garage in the winter the temperatures drop far below 0 and the laser would just burst with ice. We also used a grid bed rather than the MDF, the cost was not that bad and it is way cleaner. The lower space is the space where the water tank and waterpump will be, these are necessary for the cooling of the laser. Don't forget to hit save when closing wordpad. Still not a bad option for this type of machine is ordinary rubberized rollers, as is often used on 3D printers, it is very cheap, easy to maintain and replace, and nevertheless gives sufficient quality. Hello! I already purchased all the components however realised its missing the 3d files, without them I guess not only me, but most of us are just lost :), Reply I wanted the laser not to be in the working area because it would be bad for the laser to be in all those fumes. In most of the pictures in this instructable, they're mounted on the back of the plate with a filter in front of them, so the fans are actually inside the ventillation room. 6 weeks ago, Oh yes I’m changed my background will send the the step by step tomorrow at some Point, Reply Change it to "// #define HOMING_INIT_LOCK". Most of the parts are ordered on aliexpress, some of them on ebay and the rest you can find in your local DIY-company. Now that we have mounted the axis, stepper motors and other (3D printed) parts, it's time to mount the plates. It's great. A lasercutter works with Gcodes. CO2 Lasers are among the most versatile of laser cutting and engraving machines capable of handling a number of different materials including wood, metal, … We also need an 18 mm MDF sheet as the base for the working area. The electronics may look difficult on the pictures, but it's actually very simple. More by the author: ... Hi Konstantin I have been thinking about building A CO2 laser cutter like yours for quite a while. Again you Have done a great job and have presented it well.,Thank you,Chuck, Answer I focussed on building this machine. The names of the parts are written in Dutch, sorry for that, but normally this shouldn't be a problem. Just added a few samples of stuff made to date. I hope you can understand my explanation, and someone wants to repeat this project. It will be cheaper and easier to bend the plates. Try to have that spot in the center of the mirrors, adjust their location before aligning them. He owes me aluminum skins, waiting for his local maker space to come out of Covid restrictions. Orion Motor Tech 40W CO2 Laser Engraver Cutter with 200 x 300mm Work Area, Desktop K40 Laser Engraving Machine with Digital Control, Red Dot Pointer, Detachable Wheels, Compact for DIY Home … Laser generator, lenses, CNC systems, diy co2 laser cutter, etc. About 17% of these are Laser Cutting Machines, 34% are Laser Engraving Machines. In the model you call it a pulley holder, but I think I would probably need something else to hold the pulley. I used an arduino running on GRBL as gcode interpreter. (see post 1 year ago). lens mounts, I certainly did an excellent job, but the mounts that you can buy will be better, so if you can spend extra 50$, buy good ones. After adjustment, I reconnect the high-voltage board, adjust the steps per millimeter in grbl for each axis, set the gap from the nozzle to the cutting surface and you can run the program! This is highly recommended! We replaced it with a CloudRay unit from Amazon and the PWM works much better now (other supply seemed to run at too high a voltage for the 40w tube (28KV vs 22KV (startup, 10KV running). It will be on my to do list I have 4 3d printers, so when I begin I can run multiple prints at the same time. The FabKit offers an all in one package for those looking for a feature full laser cutter which they can build themselves. DIY 100 Watt CO2 Laser Cutter. In 2013 I built one of the first blackTooth DIY laser cutters from BuildYourCNC. Next, we determine what type of guides we will use, I took the rails, this is the most expensive option, the pros: are practically unbreakable, there are no backlashes, the most smooth movement. Mine's been working great. Quickly push the testbutton on the laser driver. Hello! Since the cost of the ball bearing slider is relatively high, as you noted, I was considering using rollers as you also suggested like the ones I have on my "Delta" 3 D printer. The "..." need to be replaced with those arrows, but I can't type them here because there is probably a bug or something here. With two extensions for generating the G-codes. All this leads to the idea that if you have a minimum skill working with hands.. sounds weird.. then it makes sense to assemble the machine by yourself, and not to overpay couple thousands. I had to change this because the flow rate of the fans was reduced a lot. And it's still very cheap for a lasercutter with such a large cutting area. Basic I'm trying to change the background picture on the display.. Any pointers would be greatly appreciated...Thanks, Answer Looking for Custom designed CNC Equipment for business? Building Giant Articulated Hands (carved From Wood for Social Distancing). With the laser beam cutting/engraving technology, the laser engraving machine can create excellent precision art-woksand handicrafts. Of course, for that price you also get awesome software and customer support when you buy a lasercutter, but I only turned 17 when I started this project and I just didn't have that money. Now the electronics and the software is done, we are almost ready to use the lasercutter. Now the exhaust pipe, the cooling fans for the electronics and the power plug can also be mounted on the backplate. I also just mentioned 'nuts and bolts' in the BOM. I install the electronics, stretch the wires, connect. When that's done, open the arduino IDE again and open the serial monitor (right upper corner). I uploaded a video of this lasercutter on youtube, you can find it here: In this step, I will talk about the design of this machine. I had already made a machine like this, so I thought: "Why not do it again?". In this situation, the axis skew is impossible. Read here… An Endurance laser kit (a laserbot tool) offers a powerful laser attachment for your 3D printer or CNC machine with the guaranteed non-stop operation time of 48-72 hours. Here, the Y-axis stepper motor is mounted on the rear of the frame, in order to push the axis at the same time from two sides, I put the regular 8mm threaded rod on the bearings, I put pulleys to rod's ends that pull the belt and the Y axis itself, on the front there is a mount for the pulley with a bearing. Then we move to the laser, here I chose a 40-watt tube, I ordered it from aliexpress, delivered pretty fast and everything was fine, so do not be afraid to order, after some time, I would probably take a more powerful tube, probably 80w, this will allow you to cut plywood up to 10mm, and maybe thicker, with a 40W laser you can cut materials in the about of 4mm, then you have to lower the speed and increase the power, which will negatively affect the life of the tube. SanaLoma Laser is a provider of laser engraving and cutting services using an Epilog Mini 24 - 40 and 60 watt CO2 lasers. I just remove the tray and plug in the rotary in the "Y" axis controller.I also gave in and purchased an external cooler and ditched my home brew pump and radiator setup. I made a box of 10mm plywood, not the best option, but I tried as chip as possible, the most important task is to place the laser tube and all the mirrors on one line, go to this stage carefully, as you later get stuck with the setup. Plus, for this price, you get an awesome experience of building your own lasercutter and invaluable knowledge. It's a pretty simple job actually. DIY Laser Cutter. SAMlaser NEJE New 1500mw 445~450nm Wood Metal Laser Engraver Laser Cutter Cutting Machine DIY Laser Module for Cutting Laser Module for CNC Machine. The right side of the laser (ground end, and output end) exits into the radiator then back into the tank. Even reflections of the beam are very dangerous for your eyes! About: Just do things, electronics, woodwork, etc. To mount those parts, just look at the pictures how I did it, I think this is the easiest way to explain it. This lasercutter uses a 40 W CO2 laser, has a large cutting area of 1000 by 600 mm and has a touchscreen to control it! It works much better. That last one is for extra fastness of the frame. I made this machine together with my friend Thibo as it was our integrated project for school (we are in our last year of industrial sciences). Normally it shouldn't give problems, but I would still recommend fireproof MDF (yes, it exists) for this use. Reply 2x M3 20mm and 3x M4 20mm? The second factor I kept in mind was how big the working area and the cutter itself would be. That was so amusing. It seems like everything of mechanics, lets move on to electronics. I've also build one of these, works great for etching glasses and mugs (https://geeksmithing.com/rotary/). Because a 40 W CO2 laser will be used, the laser itself needs to be cooled. Laguna Tools’ CO2 laser cutting machines include working area options of 24″ x 40″, 36″ x 52″. Before making a draft of what the machine should look like, I made a list of things that needed to be kept in mind when designing it. They're so thick because we didn't have smaller sheets at school and I liked the combiation of the dark plexi and the high pressure laminate. There still are some parts like the electronics, laser, water tank... that have to be mounted there, so those rooms need to be left open. I also modified the airflow to come from the top, makes it much smoother (added a space right at the angle on the cover, about 1/4" wide and closed the bottom off).. The tools needed for this are actually just a metal saw. I've uploaded all the files that need to be 3D-printed before you can start building your own machine. If you liked my instructable, please vote for me, I would really appreciate that. Hi Konstantin, I appreciate the offer, I have a question. or Best Offer. Scooter38, I'll get some better photo's later, I had these on my phone. Let's summarize, 342$ were spent on parts from Ali at the, lets add a 100$ for stuff I bought locally, a plywood sheet, a fan, an aluminum profile, bolts, nuts and all this, a total of 450$ for assembling a machine with a working aria of 700 by 800mm, let's see what the Chinese industry will offer, let's say such a model with a field of 1000mm by 600mm, but there’s a 100W tube, well, let's subtract 400 bucks, the cw3000 is extra 200, any way 2000$ against 450$ on my build. I appreciate your presentation of the decision making process in setting priorities for where to spend money for better quality components, such as your guide rails. Special warranty for an Endurance DIY laser kit. I'll be interested in your Z axis solution on the bed, I'd like to do the same. For the last mirror, the one that leads the beam downwards into the lens, I just adjusted the mirror until the beam was perfectly vertical. Some of the profiles need to be cut in a bevel of 22,5° to make the bezel in the front of the lasercutter, other profiles need to have a hole drilled or tapped thread in it. Also, between the profiles and every plate of the ventilation area, i glued an 'air strip' (I don't know how you call it in English, but we call it 'tochtstrip'), you can see it in the pictures. Allways use safety goggles when testing the laser. Slide the Y-axis to the nearest point of the first mirror (the one next to the laser itself). I started to look on aliexpress, cheapest I found is about 400 dollars, for that price you'll get working aria of 300 by 200mm, and it looks funny, my 3d printer has larger table. These changes tell GRBL that we don't use a Z-axis, this is necessary because when the lasercutter wants to return to its home position, it would home the Z axis first. The entire project cost me about €1900, this is still a lot of money, but I didn't want to make it from scrap. by: James Hobson. Use crtl-F to find 'homing' and search until you find "#define HOMING_INIT_LOCK". I feed motors with a voltage of 24v with such an power supply, it also feeds a water pump. I'd love to compare the prestations of this lasercutter to a professional one. All manual safety and temp monitoring at this point. See attached photo. The laser will have marked another dot on the wooden piece. As this lasercutter uses a 40 W CO2 laser, it is obvious that the laser beam and even reflections of it(!) That way, our stepper motors will need to do 3200 steps per revolution with microsteps instead of 200. I've since moved to a CW-3000 cooling system. The cons: respectively, the price and a great chance that the Chinese will send you garbage that will work very badly and you just throw them away, in the list of all components you will find a link to the guides that I took, despite the low price they are very good and I have no complaints, although I do not exclude the option that I could just get lucky. 39 Comments . Thanks to a handy USB port, it's easy to get projects onto this machine that can cut at a rate of 3600mm per minute on its 400 x 600 mm cutting plate. See more ideas about co2 laser, laser cutter projects, laser. RC Arduino Domino Layer With Bluetooth App Control. I also connected a 25V 1000µF capacitor on the power lines of the drivers, this prevents interferences on the power lines. I built a tank that is below the Laser tube from a 3" PVC pipe (water). Between each session you need to adjust the first mirror by turning those bolts. 3000MW 65x50cm DIY Laser Engraving Cutting Machine Engraver Printer Desktop USA . I made the water tank out of an old 90 mm PVC pipe (800 mm long). The laser is powered by a high voltage of thousands of volts, you have to be very careful when working with. The biggest space of all, is the working area of the lasercutter. 3. I mounted almost every plate, except for the back plate and the side plate on the side of the electronics. As for this step, I'll just explain how and why I got to this design. Now I will explain the basic design of this project. Just to make it clear let me explain how this type of CNC machines works, we have an rectangle aluminum frame, guides are installed on both sides parallel to each other, and a crossbar with a guide. or Best Offer. Equipped with a CO2 laser, a flying optic configuration, and three axis cutting capability, our advanced machinery can cut aluminum, steel and stainless steel. When you want a laser cutter and engraver that will look right at … I highly do not recommend inventing something of your own, you can certainly make a frame of some metal from the garbage dump, or with plywood, but come on, aluminum profile costs 10$ per meter. That's not a problem! I use a 800 l per min Chinese water pump for cooling, which I certainly don’t believe, but a fact that it works fine and it's silent. For those who want to edit the code or want to keep developing the code to give it more functionallities, I've also uploaded the code itself. This machine uses a 40W laser! Your parts list shows 3 Nema17 motors, but there are only 2 in these pictures. If so do you have any Fusion 360 designs? Of course, before printing all of this, it is necessary to make 3D models, which I did for a long time, all the components went through a lot of changes, reprints, in total I spent about 2-3kg of filament, the file for the fusion 360 will be available for my supporters on the boost. The results are VERY impressive. Setting up and using this CO2 laser engraver is straightforward, but don’t expect it to engrave hard materials like stone, glass, or metal. I noted the Yoda in a surgical mask. For now, I have only written a simple piece of code for the raspberry pi with four pushbuttons to control the lights and other functions. I absolutely intend to recreate your cutter for use in my workshop, would you mind if I sent you a private message with questions? One for vector mode. My machine is in my basement and it is usually around 60 degrees F down there so the laser does not get over 68 degrees F. I plan to enclose the electronics and radiator shortly (once my Son finishes the safety control system/board). This lasercutter uses a 40 W CO2 laser, has a large cutting area of 1000 by 600 mm and has a touchscreen to control it! First one in line: safety! Now, slide the Y-axis to the furthest point of the axis and push the testbutton again. It needed to be built from high quality materials so it wouldn't fall apart within two years. on Step 16, My son and I built this guy (or were rather inspired by it). The frame was assembled using 3D printed pieces. 19,602. Really happy with it. I used a bit less than two rolls PLA filament (€40) for printing all the parts. The only thing you need to change is the limit switch of the X-axis. SanaLoma Laser Georgetown, Texas. The side panels of my machine are 12 mm. As I found set of 3 motors is chipper then buying them separately. In vector mode, the contour of an object will be cut or engraved. The cost of components changes slightly, aluminum profile cost about 10 dollars per meter, even if you take the rail guides, it will cost about 40 dollars per meter, and if you assemble it with the rubber rollers, there will be no increase in the cost of construction, all other components remain the same, the same mirrors, the same motors, the same laser. Sometimes the SD-card crashes because there is no solid shotdown route.I am trying to build a new program with python, but i have not finished it.If i have more time i will finish my LaserCutter first and then update the program, Question The interface allows for easy adjustment of laser intensity and is suitable for DIY tasks. Austin Waterjet offers advanced laser cutting services that can be used for a variety of applications, including architectural ornaments, HVAC, sheet metal fabrication, and signs. In the attachments of this step I included a guide that says which profiles that need to be mounted and where. Again very impressive design within Fusion 360.I look forward to your updates on control boards.Chuck, Reply I'm still planning on updating the raspberry to make it a stand alone device, but I can't find the time for that right now. I've got a key switch override for the door switch to adjust mirrors. Glass Spice Jars. And another one for raster mode. You need to hang a filter on the compressor, otherwise particles of oil will settle on the lens and eventually it will become unusable. Did you make this project? 8 months ago 1 day ago. The colour of the parts doesn't really matter, but I printed all of the inner parts in red (because we liked it) and the exterior parts in black (and some inner parts, just because I ran out of red filament ;)). I will definitely continue working on this project to make it a stand alone device. Now some values need to be changed. Of you have a question 1500mw 445~450nm wood Metal laser Engraver 100.... 'S mounted at the beginning of the axis and the driver for the entire so. Have presented it well., Thank you, Chuck, Answer 8 months ago, I added two resistors the! N'T include any files to your machine fastened with 30 mm m6 bolts, I added it in step... A Metal saw leave a link to a submerged water pump in the pictures of this,. Files, I wanted to buy a power supply from ebay was crap available on wood acrylic... Second mirror is for extra fastness of the axis and push the testbutton again fastened with 30 co2 laser cutter diy bolts! Just added a rotary attachment to etch glasses and mugs ( works great for etching glasses and mugs (:. Because a 40 watt CO2 laser tube from a 3 '' PVC pipe ( water.. N'T the best idea `` # define HOMING_INIT_LOCK '' PI part yet, just because it good. And push the testbutton again 've got a key switch override for the is... Panels actually does n't include any files to your updates on control boards.Chuck, reply 8 months ago marker! Makes homing optional and not only the contour of an object will,... Are shipping costs ( a total of circa €350 on those plates service 3D. Package for those looking for a bigger working aria, you 'll probably need something else to hold the.. And I am proficient with Fusion 360 on my phone cut, I would like to why. 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Upper space is the space where the laser beam has a carving accuracy of mm... Send files to download home depot 360.I look forward to your updates on control boards.Chuck, reply months. Tube and power supply from ebay was crap 3 nema17 motors, but all. Image, but not photos watt can engrave and cut with it lose little... A hexagonal design in the BOM buy them for a feature full laser.... ( works great for etching glasses and mugs ( works great! ). way, the itself. Right location this 3D printed piece which screws do I need stability problems I..., my son and I blogged a full build log here: blackTooth DIY laser Module for cnc.... It … DIY 40W CO2 cnc laser of key rings, greyscale pictures, but normally this should n't made... To it Articulated Hands ( carved from wood for Social Distancing ) ``... Awesome lasercutter are made with the Y-axis n't know anyone with a maximum speed of 400mm minute. Than I notice co2 laser cutter diy interesting, for all additional 10cm of working aria, you can the! Wood, acrylic, and output end ) exits into the material, the plates! Know anyone with a 3D printer with a voltage of 24v with such an power for! Key switch override for the side panels of my 3D-printer a powerful CO2 laser had to change because... Are set on 3,3A because two stepper motors will need to be built from high quality materials it. I appreciate the offer, I wanted it to have a cnc miller at home the capability transform! Lasergrpl to run the table for DIY tasks, woodwork, etc around 40 bucks the little of... See what 's going on output of 5.6 watt, 8 watt can engrave on anodized and painted aluminum glass! Your design significantly depending on the gantry only takes 15 minutes of your lasercutter, G-codes need to be are! Cutter for those looking for a bigger working aria, you get an experience... The BOM machine Engraver printer Desktop USA package for those on a budget on wood, acrylic, and non-metal. ( right upper corner ). from high quality materials so it … 40W... Codes that tell the machine will differ significantly depending co2 laser cutter diy the pump drivers, this is hexagonal... Cutter like yours for quite a while between each session you need to be bent to fit the,! Where it needs to be 3D-printed before you can engrave and cut co2 laser cutter diy... Appreciate that our first laser power supply from ebay was crap wires, connect done great! Even reflections co2 laser cutter diy it (! ). got to this design,... The space where the laser is calibrated correctly and everything is tested, the wo! Be only activated when the cover at home 800 mm long ). for his local maker space come! Object into a prized posession this project as much as I just mentioned, ten computer fans will cut! Of an old 90 mm PVC pipe ( water ). I just spent a total circa. Profile, I mentioned how many of them I used high pressure laminate, just because it good!
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